China Employment Law and Why Simple Questions Require Complex Answers

China employment lawyerAt the beginning of every year, our lawyers receive hundreds of emails from both employees and employers (clients and non-clients) doing business in China. The questions often involve employees who want to change jobs or employers who are having a hard time understanding China’s employment laws.

Unfortunately, we can rarely provide instantaneous answers to their questions. In addition to the complexity of Chinese law at the national level, there are seemingly endless legal twists and turns at the local level as well.

For example, one of our regular blog readers asked about issues related to volunteering for a company that was not his employer. He worked for a U.S. Wholly Foreign-Owned Enterprise (WFOE) and had a residence permit. His questions included:

  • Do I need a certificate or other documentation to allow me to volunteer at the company one day a week?
  • Do I have to ask my current employer for permission to volunteer at another company?
  • If the company decides to start paying me for my work, would that interfere with my relationship with my existing employer?

Another asked whether her employer was justified in terminating her while she was three months pregnant and gave her two months severance. She wanted to know whether her employer was within its rights and whether she should sue it.

Though these sorts of emails may seem to pose straightforward questions, here’s just a sampling of the information our China employment lawyers would need before being able to provide any meaningful guidance:

  • We’d need to know the name and location of his employer and run a conflict check on that company.
  • Since employment laws in China often vary greatly from city to city, simply understanding the laws in an unfamiliar city can require extensive research.
  • A key aspect of understanding local laws and regulations is actually discussing them with the appropriate governmental authorities.
  • The specific contract with the employer would also have to be reviewed in detail.

As you can see, there’s almost no such thing as an easy question when it comes to labor laws in China.

Our firm’s Dan Harris wrote an article for Forbes Magazine last year on China’s Hourly Work Week: Think Locally, explaining how something as seemingly simple as the 40-hour workweek trips up employers that don’t take the time to learn the ins and outs of local employment laws. Do your research before making employment moves and don’t make the mistake of believing it will be easy.

 

China Employment Law and Why Simple Questions Require Complex Answers

China employment lawyerAt the beginning of every year, our lawyers receive hundreds of emails from both employees and employers (clients and non-clients) doing business in China. The questions often involve employees who want to change jobs or employers who are having a hard time understanding China’s employment laws.

Unfortunately, we can rarely provide instantaneous answers to their questions. In addition to the complexity of Chinese law at the national level, there are seemingly endless legal twists and turns at the local level as well.

For example, one of our regular blog readers asked about issues related to volunteering for a company that was not his employer. He worked for a U.S. Wholly Foreign-Owned Enterprise (WFOE) and had a residence permit. His questions included:

  • Do I need a certificate or other documentation to allow me to volunteer at the company one day a week?
  • Do I have to ask my current employer for permission to volunteer at another company?
  • If the company decides to start paying me for my work, would that interfere with my relationship with my existing employer?

Another asked whether her employer was justified in terminating her while she was three months pregnant and gave her two months severance. She wanted to know whether her employer was within its rights and whether she should sue it.

Though these sorts of emails may seem to pose straightforward questions, here’s just a sampling of the information our China employment lawyers would need before being able to provide any meaningful guidance:

  • We’d need to know the name and location of his employer and run a conflict check on that company.
  • Since employment laws in China often vary greatly from city to city, simply understanding the laws in an unfamiliar city can require extensive research.
  • A key aspect of understanding local laws and regulations is actually discussing them with the appropriate governmental authorities.
  • The specific contract with the employer would also have to be reviewed in detail.

As you can see, there’s almost no such thing as an easy question when it comes to labor laws in China.

Our firm’s Dan Harris wrote an article for Forbes Magazine last year on China’s Hourly Work Week: Think Locally, explaining how something as seemingly simple as the 40-hour workweek trips up employers that don’t take the time to learn the ins and outs of local employment laws. Do your research before making employment moves and don’t make the mistake of believing it will be easy.

 

China Employment Law and Why Simple Questions Require Complex Answers

China employment lawyerAt the beginning of every year, our lawyers receive hundreds of emails from both employees and employers (clients and non-clients) doing business in China. The questions often involve employees who want to change jobs or employers who are having a hard time understanding China’s employment laws.

Unfortunately, we can rarely provide instantaneous answers to their questions. In addition to the complexity of Chinese law at the national level, there are seemingly endless legal twists and turns at the local level as well.

For example, one of our regular blog readers asked about issues related to volunteering for a company that was not his employer. He worked for a U.S. Wholly Foreign-Owned Enterprise (WFOE) and had a residence permit. His questions included:

  • Do I need a certificate or other documentation to allow me to volunteer at the company one day a week?
  • Do I have to ask my current employer for permission to volunteer at another company?
  • If the company decides to start paying me for my work, would that interfere with my relationship with my existing employer?

Another asked whether her employer was justified in terminating her while she was three months pregnant and gave her two months severance. She wanted to know whether her employer was within its rights and whether she should sue it.

Though these sorts of emails may seem to pose straightforward questions, here’s just a sampling of the information our China employment lawyers would need before being able to provide any meaningful guidance:

  • We’d need to know the name and location of his employer and run a conflict check on that company.
  • Since employment laws in China often vary greatly from city to city, simply understanding the laws in an unfamiliar city can require extensive research.
  • A key aspect of understanding local laws and regulations is actually discussing them with the appropriate governmental authorities.
  • The specific contract with the employer would also have to be reviewed in detail.

As you can see, there’s almost no such thing as an easy question when it comes to labor laws in China.

Our firm’s Dan Harris wrote an article for Forbes Magazine last year on China’s Hourly Work Week: Think Locally, explaining how something as seemingly simple as the 40-hour workweek trips up employers that don’t take the time to learn the ins and outs of local employment laws. Do your research before making employment moves and don’t make the mistake of believing it will be easy.

 

China Employment Law and Why Simple Questions Require Complex Answers

China employment lawyerAt the beginning of every year, our lawyers receive hundreds of emails from both employees and employers (clients and non-clients) doing business in China. The questions often involve employees who want to change jobs or employers who are having a hard time understanding China’s employment laws.

Unfortunately, we can rarely provide instantaneous answers to their questions. In addition to the complexity of Chinese law at the national level, there are seemingly endless legal twists and turns at the local level as well.

For example, one of our regular blog readers asked about issues related to volunteering for a company that was not his employer. He worked for a U.S. Wholly Foreign-Owned Enterprise (WFOE) and had a residence permit. His questions included:

  • Do I need a certificate or other documentation to allow me to volunteer at the company one day a week?
  • Do I have to ask my current employer for permission to volunteer at another company?
  • If the company decides to start paying me for my work, would that interfere with my relationship with my existing employer?

Another asked whether her employer was justified in terminating her while she was three months pregnant and gave her two months severance. She wanted to know whether her employer was within its rights and whether she should sue it.

Though these sorts of emails may seem to pose straightforward questions, here’s just a sampling of the information our China employment lawyers would need before being able to provide any meaningful guidance:

  • We’d need to know the name and location of his employer and run a conflict check on that company.
  • Since employment laws in China often vary greatly from city to city, simply understanding the laws in an unfamiliar city can require extensive research.
  • A key aspect of understanding local laws and regulations is actually discussing them with the appropriate governmental authorities.
  • The specific contract with the employer would also have to be reviewed in detail.

As you can see, there’s almost no such thing as an easy question when it comes to labor laws in China.

Our firm’s Dan Harris wrote an article for Forbes Magazine last year on China’s Hourly Work Week: Think Locally, explaining how something as seemingly simple as the 40-hour workweek trips up employers that don’t take the time to learn the ins and outs of local employment laws. Do your research before making employment moves and don’t make the mistake of believing it will be easy.

 

Can Your Employer Fire You For Posting Vacation Photos to Facebook?–Jones v. Accentia

I posted about this case a year ago at Forbes, and it remains one of my most-read blog posts of all time. The legal question is simple: can an employer fire an employee because of the employee’s vacation photos posted to Facebook? The district court said “sure.” The 11th Circuit says “not so fast…”

Jones worked as “Activities Director” at Accentia Health and Rehabilitation Center of Tampa Bay. He went on FMLA leave for shoulder surgery. Right before he was scheduled to return, his doctor said he needed to extend his leave for 45 days. Jones offered to return on light duty, but the employer required a fitness-for-duty certification. So Jones took a month-long non-FMLA leave. During this non-FMLA period, Jones visited Busch Gardens and his family in St. Martin. He “posted photos from these trips on his Facebook page, including pictures of himself on the beach, posing by a boat wreck, and in the ocean.” When Jones finally returned to work with the doctor certification, his employer confronted him with the Facebook photos, saying they indicated he was healthy enough to come back to work earlier. He was suspended and then fired shortly thereafter.

The appellate court rejected Jones’ claim that firing him interfered with his FMLA rights:

Because Jones likely waived his FMLA right to reinstatement by taking an additional 30 days of medical leave, because he failed to submit a fitness-for-duty certification by the end of his FMLA leave, and because the record is devoid of proof challenging Accentia’s contention that its fitness-for-duty certification policy was implemented in a uniform fashion, Jones lost the right to be reinstated after failing to comply with this policy.

However, the court is more sympathetic about Jones’ claim that his employer retaliated against him for taking the leave. Jones didn’t have direct evidence of retaliation, but the court says the short turnaround between his leave and his firing can support a causal inference. The employer had difficulty providing credible evidence of non-retaliatory motives for the firing, making the proffered explanations appear pretextual. For example:

Accentia also argues that Jones was terminated for posting photos on Facebook that violated the company’s social-media policy, which states that employees can be terminated if their social-media posts have an adverse effect on coworkers. Daniels claimed that these posts had an adverse effect on Accentia employees because the photos were anonymously reported and because he heard gossip regarding the photos circulating throughout the workplace. Accentia maintains that these photos therefore created a morale issue among employees.

But Jones was not informed during his suspension meeting or in his termination letter that he had violated Accentia’s social-media policy. In addition, Daniels conducted no further investigation regarding the anonymous complaint, and neither he nor any other Accentia official could identify any employee who was adversely affected by Jones’s Facebook posts. Finally, there is evidence that the purpose of Accentia’s social-media policy, as discussed during managerial training, is to prevent employees from posting harmful or negative comments about the company’s staff or facilities. Jones’s Facebook posts were clearly far afield from this area of concern.

As a result, the appellate court revives Jones’ case.

While Jones may have gotten a raw deal from his employer, the fact remains that employers can and routinely do fire employees for their social media posts. We’ve probably blogged a couple dozen of those cases, and that’s just the tip of the iceberg. The FMLA angle gave Jones a legal argument that most fired employees won’t have. As I wrote in my prior blog post: “before you post to social media, it’s always a good idea to think about how your employer will react to your posts.” If there’s any doubt about how your employer will respond, it’s better to enjoy your vacation in private than from the unemployment line.

Case citation: Jones v. Gulf Coast Health Care of Delaware, 2017 WL 1396165 (11th Cir. April 19, 2017)

Can Your Employer Fire You For Posting Vacation Photos to Facebook?–Jones v. Accentia

I posted about this case a year ago at Forbes, and it remains one of my most-read blog posts of all time. The legal question is simple: can an employer fire an employee because of the employee’s vacation photos posted to Facebook? The district court said “sure.” The 11th Circuit says “not so fast…”

Jones worked as “Activities Director” at Accentia Health and Rehabilitation Center of Tampa Bay. He went on FMLA leave for shoulder surgery. Right before he was scheduled to return, his doctor said he needed to extend his leave for 45 days. Jones offered to return on light duty, but the employer required a fitness-for-duty certification. So Jones took a month-long non-FMLA leave. During this non-FMLA period, Jones visited Busch Gardens and his family in St. Martin. He “posted photos from these trips on his Facebook page, including pictures of himself on the beach, posing by a boat wreck, and in the ocean.” When Jones finally returned to work with the doctor certification, his employer confronted him with the Facebook photos, saying they indicated he was healthy enough to come back to work earlier. He was suspended and then fired shortly thereafter.

The appellate court rejected Jones’ claim that firing him interfered with his FMLA rights:

Because Jones likely waived his FMLA right to reinstatement by taking an additional 30 days of medical leave, because he failed to submit a fitness-for-duty certification by the end of his FMLA leave, and because the record is devoid of proof challenging Accentia’s contention that its fitness-for-duty certification policy was implemented in a uniform fashion, Jones lost the right to be reinstated after failing to comply with this policy.

However, the court is more sympathetic about Jones’ claim that his employer retaliated against him for taking the leave. Jones didn’t have direct evidence of retaliation, but the court says the short turnaround between his leave and his firing can support a causal inference. The employer had difficulty providing credible evidence of non-retaliatory motives for the firing, making the proffered explanations appear pretextual. For example:

Accentia also argues that Jones was terminated for posting photos on Facebook that violated the company’s social-media policy, which states that employees can be terminated if their social-media posts have an adverse effect on coworkers. Daniels claimed that these posts had an adverse effect on Accentia employees because the photos were anonymously reported and because he heard gossip regarding the photos circulating throughout the workplace. Accentia maintains that these photos therefore created a morale issue among employees.

But Jones was not informed during his suspension meeting or in his termination letter that he had violated Accentia’s social-media policy. In addition, Daniels conducted no further investigation regarding the anonymous complaint, and neither he nor any other Accentia official could identify any employee who was adversely affected by Jones’s Facebook posts. Finally, there is evidence that the purpose of Accentia’s social-media policy, as discussed during managerial training, is to prevent employees from posting harmful or negative comments about the company’s staff or facilities. Jones’s Facebook posts were clearly far afield from this area of concern.

As a result, the appellate court revives Jones’ case.

While Jones may have gotten a raw deal from his employer, the fact remains that employers can and routinely do fire employees for their social media posts. We’ve probably blogged a couple dozen of those cases, and that’s just the tip of the iceberg. The FMLA angle gave Jones a legal argument that most fired employees won’t have. As I wrote in my prior blog post: “before you post to social media, it’s always a good idea to think about how your employer will react to your posts.” If there’s any doubt about how your employer will respond, it’s better to enjoy your vacation in private than from the unemployment line.

Case citation: Jones v. Gulf Coast Health Care of Delaware, 2017 WL 1396165 (11th Cir. April 19, 2017)

Can Your Employer Fire You For Posting Vacation Photos to Facebook?–Jones v. Accentia

I posted about this case a year ago at Forbes, and it remains one of my most-read blog posts of all time. The legal question is simple: can an employer fire an employee because of the employee’s vacation photos posted to Facebook? The district court said “sure.” The 11th Circuit says “not so fast…”

Jones worked as “Activities Director” at Accentia Health and Rehabilitation Center of Tampa Bay. He went on FMLA leave for shoulder surgery. Right before he was scheduled to return, his doctor said he needed to extend his leave for 45 days. Jones offered to return on light duty, but the employer required a fitness-for-duty certification. So Jones took a month-long non-FMLA leave. During this non-FMLA period, Jones visited Busch Gardens and his family in St. Martin. He “posted photos from these trips on his Facebook page, including pictures of himself on the beach, posing by a boat wreck, and in the ocean.” When Jones finally returned to work with the doctor certification, his employer confronted him with the Facebook photos, saying they indicated he was healthy enough to come back to work earlier. He was suspended and then fired shortly thereafter.

The appellate court rejected Jones’ claim that firing him interfered with his FMLA rights:

Because Jones likely waived his FMLA right to reinstatement by taking an additional 30 days of medical leave, because he failed to submit a fitness-for-duty certification by the end of his FMLA leave, and because the record is devoid of proof challenging Accentia’s contention that its fitness-for-duty certification policy was implemented in a uniform fashion, Jones lost the right to be reinstated after failing to comply with this policy.

However, the court is more sympathetic about Jones’ claim that his employer retaliated against him for taking the leave. Jones didn’t have direct evidence of retaliation, but the court says the short turnaround between his leave and his firing can support a causal inference. The employer had difficulty providing credible evidence of non-retaliatory motives for the firing, making the proffered explanations appear pretextual. For example:

Accentia also argues that Jones was terminated for posting photos on Facebook that violated the company’s social-media policy, which states that employees can be terminated if their social-media posts have an adverse effect on coworkers. Daniels claimed that these posts had an adverse effect on Accentia employees because the photos were anonymously reported and because he heard gossip regarding the photos circulating throughout the workplace. Accentia maintains that these photos therefore created a morale issue among employees.

But Jones was not informed during his suspension meeting or in his termination letter that he had violated Accentia’s social-media policy. In addition, Daniels conducted no further investigation regarding the anonymous complaint, and neither he nor any other Accentia official could identify any employee who was adversely affected by Jones’s Facebook posts. Finally, there is evidence that the purpose of Accentia’s social-media policy, as discussed during managerial training, is to prevent employees from posting harmful or negative comments about the company’s staff or facilities. Jones’s Facebook posts were clearly far afield from this area of concern.

As a result, the appellate court revives Jones’ case.

While Jones may have gotten a raw deal from his employer, the fact remains that employers can and routinely do fire employees for their social media posts. We’ve probably blogged a couple dozen of those cases, and that’s just the tip of the iceberg. The FMLA angle gave Jones a legal argument that most fired employees won’t have. As I wrote in my prior blog post: “before you post to social media, it’s always a good idea to think about how your employer will react to your posts.” If there’s any doubt about how your employer will respond, it’s better to enjoy your vacation in private than from the unemployment line.

Case citation: Jones v. Gulf Coast Health Care of Delaware, 2017 WL 1396165 (11th Cir. April 19, 2017)

FTC Explains Why It Thinks 1-800 Contacts’ Keyword Ad Settlements Were Anti-Competitive–FTC v. 1-800 Contacts

As you may recall, the FTC is pursuing 1-800 Contacts for antitrust violations based on 1-800 Contacts having sued and then settled with competitors who bought keyword ads on 1-800 Contacts’ trademarks. Recently, the FTC filed its “Complaint Counsel’s Corrected Pre-Trial Brief and Exhibits” in the Matter of 1-800 Contacts, Inc. This 90 page document, unfortunately swiss-cheesed by numerous redactions, lays out the FTC’s case. It’s a fascinating read, and I encourage you to read the whole thing. In this post, I’ll flag some of the highlights.

Tangling with the U.S. Government. The first page lists 14 FTC lawyers as “Counsel Supporting the Complaint,” of which 12 are listed in the signature block. This is what it’s like to bring the full weight of the US government down on a defendant. 1-800 Contacts is no slouch, with 7 attorneys listed in the case, which sounds a lot of lawyers until you compare it to the FTC’s army.

An (Expensive) Battle of the Experts. As further evidence of how expensive this litigation is, both sides have a slew of high-priced experts. 1-800 Contacts has 6 experts: Howard Hogan (Gibson Dunn), Dr. William Landes (University of Chicago Law School), Dr. Anindya Ghose (NYU Stern Business School), Dr. Kent Van Liere (NERA), Dr. Ronald Goodstein (Georgetown McDonough Business School), and Dr. Kevin Murphy (University of Chicago Booth Business School).

The FTC’s experts including Dr. Susan Athey (now Stanford Business School, but in 2009 she was helping Microsoft attack Google on antitrust matters), Dr. David Evans, Dr. Jack Jacoby (NYU Stern Business School, and one of the most experienced trademark survey experts of all time), and my long-time collaborator Rebecca Tushnet (soon to be of Harvard Law School).

Overview of the FTC’s Case. This excerpt from the introduction summarizes the FTC’s topline perspective:

The evidence will show that, through these Bidding Agreements, 1-800 Contacts effectively shut down its significant rivals’ search advertising against 1-800 Contacts’ trademarks, blocking relevant, valuable advertising that would have been displayed to consumers absent these agreements. Further, consumers suffer direct pecuniary harm, because the eliminated advertising would inform consumers that identical products are available at lower prices from 1-800 Contacts’ online competitors. Because the Bidding Agreements block this valuable advertising, consumers receive degraded search results, and at least some consumers have paid more for their contact lenses. 1-800 Contacts’ contemporaneous business documents demonstrate unequivocally that it lost sales, to the benefit of consumers, when its lower-priced rivals placed advertisements blocked by the Bidding Agreements.

The evidence will also show that 1-800 Contacts’ Bidding Agreements have artificially depressed prices in millions of auctions held by the major U.S. search engines for the display of advertising, thus depriving search engines of significant revenues they would otherwise have earned. The Bidding Agreements have also harmed the search engines by degrading the overall quality of the product they offer to consumers.

Consumers Pay for 1-800 Contacts’ Expensive Marketing. According to the FTC:

While 1-800 Contacts prices below traditional ECPs, its price is on average higher than that of other online merchants, often by a substantial amount. Consumers are generally unaware of this, and believe that 1-800 Contacts’ prices are comparable to that of other pure-play online retailers.

Later, the FTC reiterates: “1-800 Contacts is consistently the highest-priced seller on the internet, and consumers do not know it.”

If you are a 1-800 Contacts customer, did you know this? Will it influence your future buying decisions?

The FTC Now Loves Google. Remember all of the teeth-gnashing about whether the FTC would bust Google? Apparently Google is now aces in the FTC’s book:

In effect, users are continuously “voting” (with their clicks) on what is useful to them and what is not, and Google is continuously reacting to those votes, revising its SERP accordingly. Ultimately, Google is able to predict, typically with a high degree of confidence, what SERP will be relevant to any given user based on how other users have behaved in response to similar SERPs constructed in response to similar search queries.

Apparently the FTC Loves Keyword Advertising, Too. If I were Google, I’d be quoting this language in all of my marketing copy:

Search advertising is uniquely valuable to advertisers because it puts an advertisement in front of a consumer at the precise moment the consumer is signaling her interest or intent by telling the search engine what she is seeking: it is literally the right ad, for the right user, at the right time.

Later, the FTC says “search advertising is quite different from other types of advertising, and of unique value to both consumers of contact lenses and to competitors of 1-800 Contacts.”

If the FTC says it, it must be true, right?

The Lens.com Litigation Was a Big Loss for 1-800 Contacts. Experienced litigators know that bringing a lawsuit always has the potential to backfire. In this context, it appears that 1-800 Contacts’ enforcement against Lens.com has become the centerpiece in the FTC’s case against it. The FTC brief cites Lens.com dozens of times, and the 10th Circuit Lens.com opinion remains one of the most important cases against the initial interest confusion doctrine. For example, the FTC says:

in the one case 1-800 Contacts has fully litigated on its view of trademark infringement, it lost decisively, twice. Lens.com is a widely-cited precedent on the limits of trademark infringement liability with regard to keyword bidding

Lost Sales. In 2008, 1-800 Contacts estimated that competitive keyword bidding was causing it to lose over $68k/month in sales.

What Do Consumers Expect from Trademarked Search Queries? I’d love to see the detail about this assertion from the FTC: “As Dr. Evans will testify, when a consumer of contact lenses is presented with only the 1­-800 Contacts advertisement, that consumer is more apt to curtail her search and to settle for whatever price is offered by 1-800 Contacts.” This gets to the heart of keyword advertising’s pro-competitive potential. If true, multiple bidders on a trademarked keyword don’t “divert” consumers from the trademark owner, but instead keep consumers from settling for what they mistakenly believe is the only option in the marketplace.

Later, the FTC says “consumers not only understand that searches will bring ads from multiple companies, but have come to expect this variety.” 1-800 Contacts tried to rebut this by citing the Hyman/Franklyn study–curious, because I cite that study for the direct opposite proposition that many consumers want and expect ads from multiple vendors for trademarked search queries. The FTC has several responses to the Hyman/Franklyn study: (1) the survey took place in the abstract, not in the context of actual search results, (2) the survey doesn’t reveal a consumer’s search intent, either at the outset or as it evolves throughout the course of a search, (3) the survey doesn’t model whether the consumers found the information helpful, even if it wasn’t what they initially sought (later, the FTC says “options do not ‘distract’ users from consummating a desired transaction – they help users to do so”), and (4) no matter what, Hyman/Franklyn showed that rival ads created very low levels of confusion. Dr. Jacoby did a report buttressing the latter point.

1-800 Contacts also offered Dr. Van Liere’s study purporting to show that consumers searching for 1-800 Contacts only wanted to find it. I’d love to see the report too. The FTC raised numerous challenges to the report.

Google as Victim. The FTC says consumers were harmed by the reduction in keyword ads, but it also says Google–yes, the company with $90B in 2016 global revenues and at least 64% of the search query market–was a victim of 1-800 Contacts’ scheme:

The Bidding Agreements also directly result in financial harm to the search engines. Dr. Evans constructed a model showing that the Bidding Agreements reduced 1-800 Contacts’ cost-per-click by 49-59 percent. 1-800 Contacts itself estimated in 2008 that competitive auction bidding cost it an additional $20,434 per month in advertising costs. 1-800 Contacts’ contemporaneous documents directly link a reduction in competition to lower advertising costs: “low competition equals low cost.” And a 2009 email between 1-800 Contacts marketing employees explains that the purpose of the trademark enforcement policy was to “remove competitors[,] which in turn drives down how much we pay per click.”

1-800 Contacts’ Bidding Agreements also reduce the quality of the SERP displayed by the search engines. Because they have fewer potentially relevant ads to choose from, the search engines are unable to display information that they believe may be relevant and useful to consumers. Dr. Evans constructed a model demonstrating that, in the absence of the Bidding Agreements, Google would have served more than a hundred million additional ads between January 2010 and June 2015.

In addition to not being able to serve up a large volume of potentially relevant advertising, these artificially-imposed restraints hamper the search engines’ ability to learn by analyzing what users are choosing to click on (or not to click on)….

Oh the irony…the FTC is now *protecting* Google from antitrust violations…!

Why Can’t 1-800 Contacts Enforce Its Trademarks? The FTC (unfortunately) concedes that 1-800 Contacts is an enforceable trademark. Personally, I think we should question the legitimacy of all “1-800 [noun]” trademarks for selling the noun, just like [noun].com is generic for a site related to the noun. Still, despite 1-800 Contact’s putatively valid trademark, the FTC sees limits on its enforcement:

A valid trademark invests the trademark owner with a far more limited right to bar only confusing uses of the trademark. On their face, the Bidding Agreements reach significantly beyond 1-800 Contacts’ property right by (i) barring non-confusing uses of the trademark; (ii) requiring negative keywords; and (iii) providing for reciprocal restraints on competition by 1-800 Contacts.

grumpy2The Initial Interest Confusion Doctrine (IIC). The IIC doctrine is an anachronistic and analytically deficient doctrine. The FTC should have rejected it. Instead, the FTC unfortunately acquiesced to the doctrine’s existence. The FTC pulls a definition from the Network Automation case:

Initial interest confusion arises where a defendant uses the plaintiff’s trademark in a manner calculated to capture initial consumer attention, and diverts the now-confused consumer to the defendant’s store (or website), “even though no actual sale is finally completed as a result of the confusion.”… however, the key question is whether a consumer is confused as to the source, sponsorship, or affiliation of the defendant’s product or service

I don’t love the first part of this definition. First, “capturing initial consumer attention” is an overbroad phrase. That’s called marketing. Second, “diversion” is a weird concept because it assumes we know where consumers intended to go in the first place, but consumer search objectives are opaque and constantly-evolving. Still, the FTC’s qualifier about source confusion is a powerful limit on the IIC doctrine. With that limit, we actually don’t need the IIC doctrine at all because normal trademark confusion doctrines would apply. As a result, most old-school IIC cases weren’t consistent with the FTC’s qualifier. I’m not sure what IIC means any more, but the FTC’s definition of it may not actually reflect the current state of the law.

Worse, the FTC quotes the insipid Brookfield billboard analogy, even though I spent several pages *in 2005* pointing out why the analogy was stupid. SIGH.

Having set up its definition, the FTC then adds further qualifications:

All cases finding liability under the initial interest confusion doctrine address conduct that misdirects consumers by creating a false association with the trademark holder. By contrast, where a competitor wins sales or diverts customers though comparative advertising, particularly where the ad is “clearly labeled” as to its source, there is no actionable confusion. In other words, a plaintiff can win an initial interest confusion case only by proving that a significant percentage of consumers are confused into thinking that the plaintiff is either the source of the defendant’s goods, or that the defendant’s goods are sponsored by, or affiliated with, the plaintiff. The fact that a consumer has merely been diverted is not actionable.

So what does the FTC think qualifies as IIC? It appears to be as confused by the doctrine as everyone else.

Keyword Advertising Isn’t IIC. The FTC says “Over the past decade, courts have consistently held that bidding for trademarked keywords alone is insufficient to establish a likelihood of confusion, and that an initial interest confusion analysis must take into account the content (i.e., text) and appearance of the ad, as viewed by the user on the SERP….courts have repeatedly affirmed the principle that clear labeling as to source or affiliation greatly eliminates confusion in the context of search advertising.” Citing the Multi-Time Machine v. Amazon case, the FTC says “in assessing the likelihood that search advertising results in initial interest confusion, a court must consider both the use of the keyword and the text, appearance, and context of the resulting advertisement.”

1-800 Contacts’ expert purportedly cited dozens of cases finding trademark infringement in keyword advertising cases. “But, as 1-800 Contacts’ expert conceded at his deposition, almost none of those cases address the legality of keyword bidding standing alone….The unassailable reality is that 1-800 Contacts can
point to ‘no case indicating that the simple purchase of advertising keywords, without more, may constitute initial interest confusion.’” When pushed, the expert cited the Australian Gold and Soilworks cases as keyword-only infringement cases. However, the Australian Gold case involved false claims of authorized product distribution, plus the injunction didn’t reach keyword ads. Re Soilworks, the defendant used the trademark on its website, plus it’s likely the case got overturned by the Ninth Circuit’s Network Automation case.

Free Riding. 1-800 Contacts argues that its keyword ad restrictions prevent competitive “free riding.” For more on why that argument is wrong, see my Brand Spillovers article.

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You can track all of the case filings here.

In separate news, the civil antitrust lawsuits against 1-800 Contacts (inspired by the FTC case) are not being consolidated into a multi-district litigation. In re 1-800 Contacts Antitrust Litigation, 2017 WL 1282949 (MDL Apr. 5, 2017)

***

BONUS: A recent but garbled Canadian ruling on keyword advertising: Vancouver Community College v. Vancouver Career College (Burnaby) Inc., 2017 BCCA 41. Related blog post. From my perspective, the opinion’s highlight: “Merely bidding on words, by itself, is not delivery of a message. What is key is how the defendant has presented itself, and in this the fact of bidding on a keyword is not sufficient to amount to a component of passing off, in my view.”

***

More Posts About Keyword Advertising

* Amazon Defeats Lawsuit Over Its Keyword Ad Purchases–Lasoff v. Amazon

* More Evidence Why Keyword Advertising Litigation Is Waning

* Court Dumps Crappy Trademark & Keyword Ad Case–ONEPul v. BagSpot

* AdWords Buys Using Geographic Terms Support Personal Jurisdiction–Rilley v. MoneyMutual

* FTC Sues 1-800 Contacts For Restricting Competitive Keyword Advertising

* Competitive Keyword Advertising Lawsuit Will Go To A Jury–Edible Arrangements v. Provide Commerce

* Texas Ethics Opinion Approves Competitive Keyword Ads By Lawyers

* Court Beats Down Another Competitive Keyword Advertising Lawsuit–Beast Sports v. BPI

* Another Murky Opinion on Lawyers Buying Keyword Ads on Other Lawyers’ Names–In re Naert

* Keyword Ad Lawsuit Isn’t Covered By California’s Anti-SLAPP Law

* Confusion From Competitive Keyword Advertising? Fuhgeddaboudit

* Competitive Keyword Advertising Permitted As Nominative Use–ElitePay Global v. CardPaymentOptions

* Google And Yahoo Defeat Last Remaining Lawsuit Over Competitive Keyword Advertising

* Mixed Ruling in Competitive Keyword Advertising Case–Goldline v. Regal

* Another Competitive Keyword Advertising Lawsuit Fails–Infogroup v. DatabaseLLC

* Damages from Competitive Keyword Advertising Are “Vanishingly Small”

* More Defendants Win Keyword Advertising Lawsuits

* Another Keyword Advertising Lawsuit Fails Badly

* Duplicitous Competitive Keyword Advertising Lawsuits–Fareportal v. LBF (& Vice-Versa)

* Trademark Owners Just Can’t Win Keyword Advertising Cases–EarthCam v. OxBlue

* Want To Know Amazon’s Confidential Settlement Terms For A Keyword Advertising Lawsuit? Merry Christmas!

* Florida Allows Competitive Keyword Advertising By Lawyers

* Another Keyword Advertising Lawsuit Unceremoniously Dismissed–Infostream v. Avid

* Another Keyword Advertising Lawsuit Fails–Allied Interstate v. Kimmel & Silverman

* More Evidence That Competitive Keyword Advertising Benefits Trademark Owners

* Suing Over Keyword Advertising Is A Bad Business Decision For Trademark Owners

* Florida Proposes to Ban Competitive Keyword Advertising by Lawyers

* More Confirmation That Google Has Won the AdWords Trademark Battles Worldwide

* Google’s Search Suggestions Don’t Violate Wisconsin Publicity Rights Law

* Amazon’s Merchandising of Its Search Results Doesn’t Violate Trademark Law

* Buying Keyword Ads on People’s Names Doesn’t Violate Their Publicity Rights

* With Its Australian Court Victory, Google Moves Closer to Legitimizing Keyword Advertising Globally

* Yet Another Ruling That Competitive Keyword Ad Lawsuits Are Stupid–Louisiana Pacific v. James Hardie

* Another Google AdWords Advertiser Defeats Trademark Infringement Lawsuit

* With Rosetta Stone Settlement, Google Gets Closer to Legitimizing Billions of AdWords Revenue

* Google Defeats Trademark Challenge to Its AdWords Service

* Newly Released Consumer Survey Indicates that Legal Concerns About Competitive Keyword Advertising Are Overblown

FTC Explains Why It Thinks 1-800 Contacts’ Keyword Ad Settlements Were Anti-Competitive–FTC v. 1-800 Contacts

As you may recall, the FTC is pursuing 1-800 Contacts for antitrust violations based on 1-800 Contacts having sued and then settled with competitors who bought keyword ads on 1-800 Contacts’ trademarks. Recently, the FTC filed its “Complaint Counsel’s Corrected Pre-Trial Brief and Exhibits” in the Matter of 1-800 Contacts, Inc. This 90 page document, unfortunately swiss-cheesed by numerous redactions, lays out the FTC’s case. It’s a fascinating read, and I encourage you to read the whole thing. In this post, I’ll flag some of the highlights.

Tangling with the U.S. Government. The first page lists 14 FTC lawyers as “Counsel Supporting the Complaint,” of which 12 are listed in the signature block. This is what it’s like to bring the full weight of the US government down on a defendant. 1-800 Contacts is no slouch, with 7 attorneys listed in the case, which sounds a lot of lawyers until you compare it to the FTC’s army.

An (Expensive) Battle of the Experts. As further evidence of how expensive this litigation is, both sides have a slew of high-priced experts. 1-800 Contacts has 6 experts: Howard Hogan (Gibson Dunn), Dr. William Landes (University of Chicago Law School), Dr. Anindya Ghose (NYU Stern Business School), Dr. Kent Van Liere (NERA), Dr. Ronald Goodstein (Georgetown McDonough Business School), and Dr. Kevin Murphy (University of Chicago Booth Business School).

The FTC’s experts including Dr. Susan Athey (now Stanford Business School, but in 2009 she was helping Microsoft attack Google on antitrust matters), Dr. David Evans, Dr. Jack Jacoby (NYU Stern Business School, and one of the most experienced trademark survey experts of all time), and my long-time collaborator Rebecca Tushnet (soon to be of Harvard Law School).

Overview of the FTC’s Case. This excerpt from the introduction summarizes the FTC’s topline perspective:

The evidence will show that, through these Bidding Agreements, 1-800 Contacts effectively shut down its significant rivals’ search advertising against 1-800 Contacts’ trademarks, blocking relevant, valuable advertising that would have been displayed to consumers absent these agreements. Further, consumers suffer direct pecuniary harm, because the eliminated advertising would inform consumers that identical products are available at lower prices from 1-800 Contacts’ online competitors. Because the Bidding Agreements block this valuable advertising, consumers receive degraded search results, and at least some consumers have paid more for their contact lenses. 1-800 Contacts’ contemporaneous business documents demonstrate unequivocally that it lost sales, to the benefit of consumers, when its lower-priced rivals placed advertisements blocked by the Bidding Agreements.

The evidence will also show that 1-800 Contacts’ Bidding Agreements have artificially depressed prices in millions of auctions held by the major U.S. search engines for the display of advertising, thus depriving search engines of significant revenues they would otherwise have earned. The Bidding Agreements have also harmed the search engines by degrading the overall quality of the product they offer to consumers.

Consumers Pay for 1-800 Contacts’ Expensive Marketing. According to the FTC:

While 1-800 Contacts prices below traditional ECPs, its price is on average higher than that of other online merchants, often by a substantial amount. Consumers are generally unaware of this, and believe that 1-800 Contacts’ prices are comparable to that of other pure-play online retailers.

Later, the FTC reiterates: “1-800 Contacts is consistently the highest-priced seller on the internet, and consumers do not know it.”

If you are a 1-800 Contacts customer, did you know this? Will it influence your future buying decisions?

The FTC Now Loves Google. Remember all of the teeth-gnashing about whether the FTC would bust Google? Apparently Google is now aces in the FTC’s book:

In effect, users are continuously “voting” (with their clicks) on what is useful to them and what is not, and Google is continuously reacting to those votes, revising its SERP accordingly. Ultimately, Google is able to predict, typically with a high degree of confidence, what SERP will be relevant to any given user based on how other users have behaved in response to similar SERPs constructed in response to similar search queries.

Apparently the FTC Loves Keyword Advertising, Too. If I were Google, I’d be quoting this language in all of my marketing copy:

Search advertising is uniquely valuable to advertisers because it puts an advertisement in front of a consumer at the precise moment the consumer is signaling her interest or intent by telling the search engine what she is seeking: it is literally the right ad, for the right user, at the right time.

Later, the FTC says “search advertising is quite different from other types of advertising, and of unique value to both consumers of contact lenses and to competitors of 1-800 Contacts.”

If the FTC says it, it must be true, right?

The Lens.com Litigation Was a Big Loss for 1-800 Contacts. Experienced litigators know that bringing a lawsuit always has the potential to backfire. In this context, it appears that 1-800 Contacts’ enforcement against Lens.com has become the centerpiece in the FTC’s case against it. The FTC brief cites Lens.com dozens of times, and the 10th Circuit Lens.com opinion remains one of the most important cases against the initial interest confusion doctrine. For example, the FTC says:

in the one case 1-800 Contacts has fully litigated on its view of trademark infringement, it lost decisively, twice. Lens.com is a widely-cited precedent on the limits of trademark infringement liability with regard to keyword bidding

Lost Sales. In 2008, 1-800 Contacts estimated that competitive keyword bidding was causing it to lose over $68k/month in sales.

What Do Consumers Expect from Trademarked Search Queries? I’d love to see the detail about this assertion from the FTC: “As Dr. Evans will testify, when a consumer of contact lenses is presented with only the 1­-800 Contacts advertisement, that consumer is more apt to curtail her search and to settle for whatever price is offered by 1-800 Contacts.” This gets to the heart of keyword advertising’s pro-competitive potential. If true, multiple bidders on a trademarked keyword don’t “divert” consumers from the trademark owner, but instead keep consumers from settling for what they mistakenly believe is the only option in the marketplace.

Later, the FTC says “consumers not only understand that searches will bring ads from multiple companies, but have come to expect this variety.” 1-800 Contacts tried to rebut this by citing the Hyman/Franklyn study–curious, because I cite that study for the direct opposite proposition that many consumers want and expect ads from multiple vendors for trademarked search queries. The FTC has several responses to the Hyman/Franklyn study: (1) the survey took place in the abstract, not in the context of actual search results, (2) the survey doesn’t reveal a consumer’s search intent, either at the outset or as it evolves throughout the course of a search, (3) the survey doesn’t model whether the consumers found the information helpful, even if it wasn’t what they initially sought (later, the FTC says “options do not ‘distract’ users from consummating a desired transaction – they help users to do so”), and (4) no matter what, Hyman/Franklyn showed that rival ads created very low levels of confusion. Dr. Jacoby did a report buttressing the latter point.

1-800 Contacts also offered Dr. Van Liere’s study purporting to show that consumers searching for 1-800 Contacts only wanted to find it. I’d love to see the report too. The FTC raised numerous challenges to the report.

Google as Victim. The FTC says consumers were harmed by the reduction in keyword ads, but it also says Google–yes, the company with $90B in 2016 global revenues and at least 64% of the search query market–was a victim of 1-800 Contacts’ scheme:

The Bidding Agreements also directly result in financial harm to the search engines. Dr. Evans constructed a model showing that the Bidding Agreements reduced 1-800 Contacts’ cost-per-click by 49-59 percent. 1-800 Contacts itself estimated in 2008 that competitive auction bidding cost it an additional $20,434 per month in advertising costs. 1-800 Contacts’ contemporaneous documents directly link a reduction in competition to lower advertising costs: “low competition equals low cost.” And a 2009 email between 1-800 Contacts marketing employees explains that the purpose of the trademark enforcement policy was to “remove competitors[,] which in turn drives down how much we pay per click.”

1-800 Contacts’ Bidding Agreements also reduce the quality of the SERP displayed by the search engines. Because they have fewer potentially relevant ads to choose from, the search engines are unable to display information that they believe may be relevant and useful to consumers. Dr. Evans constructed a model demonstrating that, in the absence of the Bidding Agreements, Google would have served more than a hundred million additional ads between January 2010 and June 2015.

In addition to not being able to serve up a large volume of potentially relevant advertising, these artificially-imposed restraints hamper the search engines’ ability to learn by analyzing what users are choosing to click on (or not to click on)….

Oh the irony…the FTC is now *protecting* Google from antitrust violations…!

Why Can’t 1-800 Contacts Enforce Its Trademarks? The FTC (unfortunately) concedes that 1-800 Contacts is an enforceable trademark. Personally, I think we should question the legitimacy of all “1-800 [noun]” trademarks for selling the noun, just like [noun].com is generic for a site related to the noun. Still, despite 1-800 Contact’s putatively valid trademark, the FTC sees limits on its enforcement:

A valid trademark invests the trademark owner with a far more limited right to bar only confusing uses of the trademark. On their face, the Bidding Agreements reach significantly beyond 1-800 Contacts’ property right by (i) barring non-confusing uses of the trademark; (ii) requiring negative keywords; and (iii) providing for reciprocal restraints on competition by 1-800 Contacts.

grumpy2The Initial Interest Confusion Doctrine (IIC). The IIC doctrine is an anachronistic and analytically deficient doctrine. The FTC should have rejected it. Instead, the FTC unfortunately acquiesced to the doctrine’s existence. The FTC pulls a definition from the Network Automation case:

Initial interest confusion arises where a defendant uses the plaintiff’s trademark in a manner calculated to capture initial consumer attention, and diverts the now-confused consumer to the defendant’s store (or website), “even though no actual sale is finally completed as a result of the confusion.”… however, the key question is whether a consumer is confused as to the source, sponsorship, or affiliation of the defendant’s product or service

I don’t love the first part of this definition. First, “capturing initial consumer attention” is an overbroad phrase. That’s called marketing. Second, “diversion” is a weird concept because it assumes we know where consumers intended to go in the first place, but consumer search objectives are opaque and constantly-evolving. Still, the FTC’s qualifier about source confusion is a powerful limit on the IIC doctrine. With that limit, we actually don’t need the IIC doctrine at all because normal trademark confusion doctrines would apply. As a result, most old-school IIC cases weren’t consistent with the FTC’s qualifier. I’m not sure what IIC means any more, but the FTC’s definition of it may not actually reflect the current state of the law.

Worse, the FTC quotes the insipid Brookfield billboard analogy, even though I spent several pages *in 2005* pointing out why the analogy was stupid. SIGH.

Having set up its definition, the FTC then adds further qualifications:

All cases finding liability under the initial interest confusion doctrine address conduct that misdirects consumers by creating a false association with the trademark holder. By contrast, where a competitor wins sales or diverts customers though comparative advertising, particularly where the ad is “clearly labeled” as to its source, there is no actionable confusion. In other words, a plaintiff can win an initial interest confusion case only by proving that a significant percentage of consumers are confused into thinking that the plaintiff is either the source of the defendant’s goods, or that the defendant’s goods are sponsored by, or affiliated with, the plaintiff. The fact that a consumer has merely been diverted is not actionable.

So what does the FTC think qualifies as IIC? It appears to be as confused by the doctrine as everyone else.

Keyword Advertising Isn’t IIC. The FTC says “Over the past decade, courts have consistently held that bidding for trademarked keywords alone is insufficient to establish a likelihood of confusion, and that an initial interest confusion analysis must take into account the content (i.e., text) and appearance of the ad, as viewed by the user on the SERP….courts have repeatedly affirmed the principle that clear labeling as to source or affiliation greatly eliminates confusion in the context of search advertising.” Citing the Multi-Time Machine v. Amazon case, the FTC says “in assessing the likelihood that search advertising results in initial interest confusion, a court must consider both the use of the keyword and the text, appearance, and context of the resulting advertisement.”

1-800 Contacts’ expert purportedly cited dozens of cases finding trademark infringement in keyword advertising cases. “But, as 1-800 Contacts’ expert conceded at his deposition, almost none of those cases address the legality of keyword bidding standing alone….The unassailable reality is that 1-800 Contacts can
point to ‘no case indicating that the simple purchase of advertising keywords, without more, may constitute initial interest confusion.’” When pushed, the expert cited the Australian Gold and Soilworks cases as keyword-only infringement cases. However, the Australian Gold case involved false claims of authorized product distribution, plus the injunction didn’t reach keyword ads. Re Soilworks, the defendant used the trademark on its website, plus it’s likely the case got overturned by the Ninth Circuit’s Network Automation case.

Free Riding. 1-800 Contacts argues that its keyword ad restrictions prevent competitive “free riding.” For more on why that argument is wrong, see my Brand Spillovers article.

***

You can track all of the case filings here.

In separate news, the civil antitrust lawsuits against 1-800 Contacts (inspired by the FTC case) are not being consolidated into a multi-district litigation. In re 1-800 Contacts Antitrust Litigation, 2017 WL 1282949 (MDL Apr. 5, 2017)

***

BONUS: A recent but garbled Canadian ruling on keyword advertising: Vancouver Community College v. Vancouver Career College (Burnaby) Inc., 2017 BCCA 41. Related blog post. From my perspective, the opinion’s highlight: “Merely bidding on words, by itself, is not delivery of a message. What is key is how the defendant has presented itself, and in this the fact of bidding on a keyword is not sufficient to amount to a component of passing off, in my view.”

***

More Posts About Keyword Advertising

* Amazon Defeats Lawsuit Over Its Keyword Ad Purchases–Lasoff v. Amazon

* More Evidence Why Keyword Advertising Litigation Is Waning

* Court Dumps Crappy Trademark & Keyword Ad Case–ONEPul v. BagSpot

* AdWords Buys Using Geographic Terms Support Personal Jurisdiction–Rilley v. MoneyMutual

* FTC Sues 1-800 Contacts For Restricting Competitive Keyword Advertising

* Competitive Keyword Advertising Lawsuit Will Go To A Jury–Edible Arrangements v. Provide Commerce

* Texas Ethics Opinion Approves Competitive Keyword Ads By Lawyers

* Court Beats Down Another Competitive Keyword Advertising Lawsuit–Beast Sports v. BPI

* Another Murky Opinion on Lawyers Buying Keyword Ads on Other Lawyers’ Names–In re Naert

* Keyword Ad Lawsuit Isn’t Covered By California’s Anti-SLAPP Law

* Confusion From Competitive Keyword Advertising? Fuhgeddaboudit

* Competitive Keyword Advertising Permitted As Nominative Use–ElitePay Global v. CardPaymentOptions

* Google And Yahoo Defeat Last Remaining Lawsuit Over Competitive Keyword Advertising

* Mixed Ruling in Competitive Keyword Advertising Case–Goldline v. Regal

* Another Competitive Keyword Advertising Lawsuit Fails–Infogroup v. DatabaseLLC

* Damages from Competitive Keyword Advertising Are “Vanishingly Small”

* More Defendants Win Keyword Advertising Lawsuits

* Another Keyword Advertising Lawsuit Fails Badly

* Duplicitous Competitive Keyword Advertising Lawsuits–Fareportal v. LBF (& Vice-Versa)

* Trademark Owners Just Can’t Win Keyword Advertising Cases–EarthCam v. OxBlue

* Want To Know Amazon’s Confidential Settlement Terms For A Keyword Advertising Lawsuit? Merry Christmas!

* Florida Allows Competitive Keyword Advertising By Lawyers

* Another Keyword Advertising Lawsuit Unceremoniously Dismissed–Infostream v. Avid

* Another Keyword Advertising Lawsuit Fails–Allied Interstate v. Kimmel & Silverman

* More Evidence That Competitive Keyword Advertising Benefits Trademark Owners

* Suing Over Keyword Advertising Is A Bad Business Decision For Trademark Owners

* Florida Proposes to Ban Competitive Keyword Advertising by Lawyers

* More Confirmation That Google Has Won the AdWords Trademark Battles Worldwide

* Google’s Search Suggestions Don’t Violate Wisconsin Publicity Rights Law

* Amazon’s Merchandising of Its Search Results Doesn’t Violate Trademark Law

* Buying Keyword Ads on People’s Names Doesn’t Violate Their Publicity Rights

* With Its Australian Court Victory, Google Moves Closer to Legitimizing Keyword Advertising Globally

* Yet Another Ruling That Competitive Keyword Ad Lawsuits Are Stupid–Louisiana Pacific v. James Hardie

* Another Google AdWords Advertiser Defeats Trademark Infringement Lawsuit

* With Rosetta Stone Settlement, Google Gets Closer to Legitimizing Billions of AdWords Revenue

* Google Defeats Trademark Challenge to Its AdWords Service

* Newly Released Consumer Survey Indicates that Legal Concerns About Competitive Keyword Advertising Are Overblown

FTC Explains Why It Thinks 1-800 Contacts’ Keyword Ad Settlements Were Anti-Competitive–FTC v. 1-800 Contacts

As you may recall, the FTC is pursuing 1-800 Contacts for antitrust violations based on 1-800 Contacts having sued and then settled with competitors who bought keyword ads on 1-800 Contacts’ trademarks. Recently, the FTC filed its “Complaint Counsel’s Corrected Pre-Trial Brief and Exhibits” in the Matter of 1-800 Contacts, Inc. This 90 page document, unfortunately swiss-cheesed by numerous redactions, lays out the FTC’s case. It’s a fascinating read, and I encourage you to read the whole thing. In this post, I’ll flag some of the highlights.

Tangling with the U.S. Government. The first page lists 14 FTC lawyers as “Counsel Supporting the Complaint,” of which 12 are listed in the signature block. This is what it’s like to bring the full weight of the US government down on a defendant. 1-800 Contacts is no slouch, with 7 attorneys listed in the case, which sounds a lot of lawyers until you compare it to the FTC’s army.

An (Expensive) Battle of the Experts. As further evidence of how expensive this litigation is, both sides have a slew of high-priced experts. 1-800 Contacts has 6 experts: Howard Hogan (Gibson Dunn), Dr. William Landes (University of Chicago Law School), Dr. Anindya Ghose (NYU Stern Business School), Dr. Kent Van Liere (NERA), Dr. Ronald Goodstein (Georgetown McDonough Business School), and Dr. Kevin Murphy (University of Chicago Booth Business School).

The FTC’s experts including Dr. Susan Athey (now Stanford Business School, but in 2009 she was helping Microsoft attack Google on antitrust matters), Dr. David Evans, Dr. Jack Jacoby (NYU Stern Business School, and one of the most experienced trademark survey experts of all time), and my long-time collaborator Rebecca Tushnet (soon to be of Harvard Law School).

Overview of the FTC’s Case. This excerpt from the introduction summarizes the FTC’s topline perspective:

The evidence will show that, through these Bidding Agreements, 1-800 Contacts effectively shut down its significant rivals’ search advertising against 1-800 Contacts’ trademarks, blocking relevant, valuable advertising that would have been displayed to consumers absent these agreements. Further, consumers suffer direct pecuniary harm, because the eliminated advertising would inform consumers that identical products are available at lower prices from 1-800 Contacts’ online competitors. Because the Bidding Agreements block this valuable advertising, consumers receive degraded search results, and at least some consumers have paid more for their contact lenses. 1-800 Contacts’ contemporaneous business documents demonstrate unequivocally that it lost sales, to the benefit of consumers, when its lower-priced rivals placed advertisements blocked by the Bidding Agreements.

The evidence will also show that 1-800 Contacts’ Bidding Agreements have artificially depressed prices in millions of auctions held by the major U.S. search engines for the display of advertising, thus depriving search engines of significant revenues they would otherwise have earned. The Bidding Agreements have also harmed the search engines by degrading the overall quality of the product they offer to consumers.

Consumers Pay for 1-800 Contacts’ Expensive Marketing. According to the FTC:

While 1-800 Contacts prices below traditional ECPs, its price is on average higher than that of other online merchants, often by a substantial amount. Consumers are generally unaware of this, and believe that 1-800 Contacts’ prices are comparable to that of other pure-play online retailers.

Later, the FTC reiterates: “1-800 Contacts is consistently the highest-priced seller on the internet, and consumers do not know it.”

If you are a 1-800 Contacts customer, did you know this? Will it influence your future buying decisions?

The FTC Now Loves Google. Remember all of the teeth-gnashing about whether the FTC would bust Google? Apparently Google is now aces in the FTC’s book:

In effect, users are continuously “voting” (with their clicks) on what is useful to them and what is not, and Google is continuously reacting to those votes, revising its SERP accordingly. Ultimately, Google is able to predict, typically with a high degree of confidence, what SERP will be relevant to any given user based on how other users have behaved in response to similar SERPs constructed in response to similar search queries.

Apparently the FTC Loves Keyword Advertising, Too. If I were Google, I’d be quoting this language in all of my marketing copy:

Search advertising is uniquely valuable to advertisers because it puts an advertisement in front of a consumer at the precise moment the consumer is signaling her interest or intent by telling the search engine what she is seeking: it is literally the right ad, for the right user, at the right time.

Later, the FTC says “search advertising is quite different from other types of advertising, and of unique value to both consumers of contact lenses and to competitors of 1-800 Contacts.”

If the FTC says it, it must be true, right?

The Lens.com Litigation Was a Big Loss for 1-800 Contacts. Experienced litigators know that bringing a lawsuit always has the potential to backfire. In this context, it appears that 1-800 Contacts’ enforcement against Lens.com has become the centerpiece in the FTC’s case against it. The FTC brief cites Lens.com dozens of times, and the 10th Circuit Lens.com opinion remains one of the most important cases against the initial interest confusion doctrine. For example, the FTC says:

in the one case 1-800 Contacts has fully litigated on its view of trademark infringement, it lost decisively, twice. Lens.com is a widely-cited precedent on the limits of trademark infringement liability with regard to keyword bidding

Lost Sales. In 2008, 1-800 Contacts estimated that competitive keyword bidding was causing it to lose over $68k/month in sales.

What Do Consumers Expect from Trademarked Search Queries? I’d love to see the detail about this assertion from the FTC: “As Dr. Evans will testify, when a consumer of contact lenses is presented with only the 1­-800 Contacts advertisement, that consumer is more apt to curtail her search and to settle for whatever price is offered by 1-800 Contacts.” This gets to the heart of keyword advertising’s pro-competitive potential. If true, multiple bidders on a trademarked keyword don’t “divert” consumers from the trademark owner, but instead keep consumers from settling for what they mistakenly believe is the only option in the marketplace.

Later, the FTC says “consumers not only understand that searches will bring ads from multiple companies, but have come to expect this variety.” 1-800 Contacts tried to rebut this by citing the Hyman/Franklyn study–curious, because I cite that study for the direct opposite proposition that many consumers want and expect ads from multiple vendors for trademarked search queries. The FTC has several responses to the Hyman/Franklyn study: (1) the survey took place in the abstract, not in the context of actual search results, (2) the survey doesn’t reveal a consumer’s search intent, either at the outset or as it evolves throughout the course of a search, (3) the survey doesn’t model whether the consumers found the information helpful, even if it wasn’t what they initially sought (later, the FTC says “options do not ‘distract’ users from consummating a desired transaction – they help users to do so”), and (4) no matter what, Hyman/Franklyn showed that rival ads created very low levels of confusion. Dr. Jacoby did a report buttressing the latter point.

1-800 Contacts also offered Dr. Van Liere’s study purporting to show that consumers searching for 1-800 Contacts only wanted to find it. I’d love to see the report too. The FTC raised numerous challenges to the report.

Google as Victim. The FTC says consumers were harmed by the reduction in keyword ads, but it also says Google–yes, the company with $90B in 2016 global revenues and at least 64% of the search query market–was a victim of 1-800 Contacts’ scheme:

The Bidding Agreements also directly result in financial harm to the search engines. Dr. Evans constructed a model showing that the Bidding Agreements reduced 1-800 Contacts’ cost-per-click by 49-59 percent. 1-800 Contacts itself estimated in 2008 that competitive auction bidding cost it an additional $20,434 per month in advertising costs. 1-800 Contacts’ contemporaneous documents directly link a reduction in competition to lower advertising costs: “low competition equals low cost.” And a 2009 email between 1-800 Contacts marketing employees explains that the purpose of the trademark enforcement policy was to “remove competitors[,] which in turn drives down how much we pay per click.”

1-800 Contacts’ Bidding Agreements also reduce the quality of the SERP displayed by the search engines. Because they have fewer potentially relevant ads to choose from, the search engines are unable to display information that they believe may be relevant and useful to consumers. Dr. Evans constructed a model demonstrating that, in the absence of the Bidding Agreements, Google would have served more than a hundred million additional ads between January 2010 and June 2015.

In addition to not being able to serve up a large volume of potentially relevant advertising, these artificially-imposed restraints hamper the search engines’ ability to learn by analyzing what users are choosing to click on (or not to click on)….

Oh the irony…the FTC is now *protecting* Google from antitrust violations…!

Why Can’t 1-800 Contacts Enforce Its Trademarks? The FTC (unfortunately) concedes that 1-800 Contacts is an enforceable trademark. Personally, I think we should question the legitimacy of all “1-800 [noun]” trademarks for selling the noun, just like [noun].com is generic for a site related to the noun. Still, despite 1-800 Contact’s putatively valid trademark, the FTC sees limits on its enforcement:

A valid trademark invests the trademark owner with a far more limited right to bar only confusing uses of the trademark. On their face, the Bidding Agreements reach significantly beyond 1-800 Contacts’ property right by (i) barring non-confusing uses of the trademark; (ii) requiring negative keywords; and (iii) providing for reciprocal restraints on competition by 1-800 Contacts.

grumpy2The Initial Interest Confusion Doctrine (IIC). The IIC doctrine is an anachronistic and analytically deficient doctrine. The FTC should have rejected it. Instead, the FTC unfortunately acquiesced to the doctrine’s existence. The FTC pulls a definition from the Network Automation case:

Initial interest confusion arises where a defendant uses the plaintiff’s trademark in a manner calculated to capture initial consumer attention, and diverts the now-confused consumer to the defendant’s store (or website), “even though no actual sale is finally completed as a result of the confusion.”… however, the key question is whether a consumer is confused as to the source, sponsorship, or affiliation of the defendant’s product or service

I don’t love the first part of this definition. First, “capturing initial consumer attention” is an overbroad phrase. That’s called marketing. Second, “diversion” is a weird concept because it assumes we know where consumers intended to go in the first place, but consumer search objectives are opaque and constantly-evolving. Still, the FTC’s qualifier about source confusion is a powerful limit on the IIC doctrine. With that limit, we actually don’t need the IIC doctrine at all because normal trademark confusion doctrines would apply. As a result, most old-school IIC cases weren’t consistent with the FTC’s qualifier. I’m not sure what IIC means any more, but the FTC’s definition of it may not actually reflect the current state of the law.

Worse, the FTC quotes the insipid Brookfield billboard analogy, even though I spent several pages *in 2005* pointing out why the analogy was stupid. SIGH.

Having set up its definition, the FTC then adds further qualifications:

All cases finding liability under the initial interest confusion doctrine address conduct that misdirects consumers by creating a false association with the trademark holder. By contrast, where a competitor wins sales or diverts customers though comparative advertising, particularly where the ad is “clearly labeled” as to its source, there is no actionable confusion. In other words, a plaintiff can win an initial interest confusion case only by proving that a significant percentage of consumers are confused into thinking that the plaintiff is either the source of the defendant’s goods, or that the defendant’s goods are sponsored by, or affiliated with, the plaintiff. The fact that a consumer has merely been diverted is not actionable.

So what does the FTC think qualifies as IIC? It appears to be as confused by the doctrine as everyone else.

Keyword Advertising Isn’t IIC. The FTC says “Over the past decade, courts have consistently held that bidding for trademarked keywords alone is insufficient to establish a likelihood of confusion, and that an initial interest confusion analysis must take into account the content (i.e., text) and appearance of the ad, as viewed by the user on the SERP….courts have repeatedly affirmed the principle that clear labeling as to source or affiliation greatly eliminates confusion in the context of search advertising.” Citing the Multi-Time Machine v. Amazon case, the FTC says “in assessing the likelihood that search advertising results in initial interest confusion, a court must consider both the use of the keyword and the text, appearance, and context of the resulting advertisement.”

1-800 Contacts’ expert purportedly cited dozens of cases finding trademark infringement in keyword advertising cases. “But, as 1-800 Contacts’ expert conceded at his deposition, almost none of those cases address the legality of keyword bidding standing alone….The unassailable reality is that 1-800 Contacts can
point to ‘no case indicating that the simple purchase of advertising keywords, without more, may constitute initial interest confusion.’” When pushed, the expert cited the Australian Gold and Soilworks cases as keyword-only infringement cases. However, the Australian Gold case involved false claims of authorized product distribution, plus the injunction didn’t reach keyword ads. Re Soilworks, the defendant used the trademark on its website, plus it’s likely the case got overturned by the Ninth Circuit’s Network Automation case.

Free Riding. 1-800 Contacts argues that its keyword ad restrictions prevent competitive “free riding.” For more on why that argument is wrong, see my Brand Spillovers article.

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You can track all of the case filings here.

In separate news, the civil antitrust lawsuits against 1-800 Contacts (inspired by the FTC case) are not being consolidated into a multi-district litigation. In re 1-800 Contacts Antitrust Litigation, 2017 WL 1282949 (MDL Apr. 5, 2017)

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BONUS: A recent but garbled Canadian ruling on keyword advertising: Vancouver Community College v. Vancouver Career College (Burnaby) Inc., 2017 BCCA 41. Related blog post. From my perspective, the opinion’s highlight: “Merely bidding on words, by itself, is not delivery of a message. What is key is how the defendant has presented itself, and in this the fact of bidding on a keyword is not sufficient to amount to a component of passing off, in my view.”

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More Posts About Keyword Advertising

* Amazon Defeats Lawsuit Over Its Keyword Ad Purchases–Lasoff v. Amazon

* More Evidence Why Keyword Advertising Litigation Is Waning

* Court Dumps Crappy Trademark & Keyword Ad Case–ONEPul v. BagSpot

* AdWords Buys Using Geographic Terms Support Personal Jurisdiction–Rilley v. MoneyMutual

* FTC Sues 1-800 Contacts For Restricting Competitive Keyword Advertising

* Competitive Keyword Advertising Lawsuit Will Go To A Jury–Edible Arrangements v. Provide Commerce

* Texas Ethics Opinion Approves Competitive Keyword Ads By Lawyers

* Court Beats Down Another Competitive Keyword Advertising Lawsuit–Beast Sports v. BPI

* Another Murky Opinion on Lawyers Buying Keyword Ads on Other Lawyers’ Names–In re Naert

* Keyword Ad Lawsuit Isn’t Covered By California’s Anti-SLAPP Law

* Confusion From Competitive Keyword Advertising? Fuhgeddaboudit

* Competitive Keyword Advertising Permitted As Nominative Use–ElitePay Global v. CardPaymentOptions

* Google And Yahoo Defeat Last Remaining Lawsuit Over Competitive Keyword Advertising

* Mixed Ruling in Competitive Keyword Advertising Case–Goldline v. Regal

* Another Competitive Keyword Advertising Lawsuit Fails–Infogroup v. DatabaseLLC

* Damages from Competitive Keyword Advertising Are “Vanishingly Small”

* More Defendants Win Keyword Advertising Lawsuits

* Another Keyword Advertising Lawsuit Fails Badly

* Duplicitous Competitive Keyword Advertising Lawsuits–Fareportal v. LBF (& Vice-Versa)

* Trademark Owners Just Can’t Win Keyword Advertising Cases–EarthCam v. OxBlue

* Want To Know Amazon’s Confidential Settlement Terms For A Keyword Advertising Lawsuit? Merry Christmas!

* Florida Allows Competitive Keyword Advertising By Lawyers

* Another Keyword Advertising Lawsuit Unceremoniously Dismissed–Infostream v. Avid

* Another Keyword Advertising Lawsuit Fails–Allied Interstate v. Kimmel & Silverman

* More Evidence That Competitive Keyword Advertising Benefits Trademark Owners

* Suing Over Keyword Advertising Is A Bad Business Decision For Trademark Owners

* Florida Proposes to Ban Competitive Keyword Advertising by Lawyers

* More Confirmation That Google Has Won the AdWords Trademark Battles Worldwide

* Google’s Search Suggestions Don’t Violate Wisconsin Publicity Rights Law

* Amazon’s Merchandising of Its Search Results Doesn’t Violate Trademark Law

* Buying Keyword Ads on People’s Names Doesn’t Violate Their Publicity Rights

* With Its Australian Court Victory, Google Moves Closer to Legitimizing Keyword Advertising Globally

* Yet Another Ruling That Competitive Keyword Ad Lawsuits Are Stupid–Louisiana Pacific v. James Hardie

* Another Google AdWords Advertiser Defeats Trademark Infringement Lawsuit

* With Rosetta Stone Settlement, Google Gets Closer to Legitimizing Billions of AdWords Revenue

* Google Defeats Trademark Challenge to Its AdWords Service

* Newly Released Consumer Survey Indicates that Legal Concerns About Competitive Keyword Advertising Are Overblown